The Role of Women in Video Games

8 Mar

I have written an article about female characters in games to coincide with International Women’s Day 2011. If you’d like to read it, you can find it here:

!!!CLICK ME!!!

If you enjoyed it, feel free to leave a comment or share the link and apologies for the lack of a proper post, I’ll be splitting my time between GGB and push-start.co.uk from now on. Don’t worry though, I’ll still be posting here!
To apologise for the lack of a full article (though you can of course read my piece on push-start!) Here’s a picutre of some cute kittens:

So cute!

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Top 100 Games – 92 – Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic

5 Mar

Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic
Year: 2003
Genre: RPG

Bioware’s efforts to make interaction and conversation an integral part of gameplay have set them apart from other mainstream developers. Their success has led to their acquisition by industry heavyweights EA and seen the Mass Effect franchise gain a huge following. After Baldur’s Gate and Neverwinter Nights they set the standard for cinematic storytelling with one of the best uses of a licence in video game history. Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic tells a unique story within the expansive universe created by George Lucas, and allows players to follow the now well-known morality paths of good and evil. KOTOR manages to be one of very few games in which the black and white polarisation of choice is actually a positive, thanks to the source material. With users of ‘the force’ being basically Jedi or Sith, a fancy way of saying angelic or demonic, the system fits perfectly and clever use of both a deep conversation system and party-building would pave the way for the ambitious space opera, Mass Effect.

Fight! Fight! Fight!

KOTOR though, is the better game. Role-Playing-Games such as this rely on a dice-rolling element to combat and other interactions which are ultimately useless in Mass Effect, and to a lesser extent, Jade Empire. By giving the player total control over combat, stat building exists only to make battles slightly less of a slog, rather than to aid tactical gameplay. It’s not as deep as some similar games, but the fights are satisfying, as is the ability to customise a character. The most entertaining element being crafting a lightsaber, you can even carry two. The story is interesting, and while a little predictable, captures much of the adventurous spirit of the original movies, with a slightly darker edge. This is an extremely faithful effort, despite having an all-new cast and mostly new locations. The characters are well-voiced, and quite well-written, with homicidal droid HK-47 standing out in particular.

The conversation system is perhaps the most entertaining element of KOTOR. Bioware have become known for their ability to craft interesting interactions and this is where it really took off for them. The formula of KOTOR will be familiar to those who have only played the latest Mass Effect, such is its lasting appeal. Now a feature in most games of this type, the ability to choose responses based on level, morality and simple judgement, and their effect on a situation made KOTOR more interesting than the standard linear RPG. While some may criticise the dialogue for being too obviously good or bad, it plays nicely into the story. The level of choice is just enough to make what is essentially a linear, cinematic experience feel influenced by the player. That alone is a massive achievement, and one Bioware are yet to improve upon.

Games as Art – Part 4 (David Cage GDC 2011)

3 Mar

At this year’s Game Developers Conference, David Cage, creator of Heavy Rain, questioned the creation of games which are ostensibly for teenagers. (Source: CVG) The focus on killing as sole objective is an aspect of gaming that he disagrees with, in that it fails to engage and tell a story in an interactive manner. Cage makes some very interesting points, looking at the fact that adults are the biggest audience for games now, and that games can use their interactivity to tell a story. Unfortunately for Cage there are a few problems with what he said. Firstly, adults enjoy killing things as much as teens apparently, and in the same way that the most popular movies are simplistic, games are not looked to for their artistic merit by the majority.

For those of us who do look for more from our entertainment, secondly, Heavy Rain, which Cage points to as a more story focused interactive experience, is not all that well plotted in terms of interactivity. Cage deserves an awful lot of credit for attempting to create something so different, but ultimately Heavy Rain has too many flaws to be what he envisioned. The plot is its biggest downfall, more reminiscent of the throwaway thrill of ‘Criminal Minds’ or ‘CSI’ than an intelligent piece of entertainment. It doesn’t answer the question ‘How far would you go for someone you love?’ It is different, it was an exciting few hours and it’s certainly worth playing, but as an example of what gaming could be intellectually and artistically, it falls short.

Cage's Fahrenheit was a far superior game to Heavy Rain

There are, however, some examples of how interactivity and the game format can tell a story in a way a movie, book or any other form of media never could. While Heavy Rain fell back on movie clichés in its storytelling, games like ‘The Last Express’ and’ Facade’ follow a more unique path. These games are far more interesting for the would-be developer than Cage’s creation, and should be held in higher regard amongst gamers. Both games would fail to reach any level of mainstream popularity for different reasons, but one can only hope they become the ‘Velvet Underground’ of gaming. Not many people played them, but everyone who did went on to make a game themselves, to paraphrase.

The Last Express appeared as the adventure game fell from popularity. Created by Prince of Persia developer Jordan Mechner and Smoking Car Productions, it was a perfectly realised period piece. The setting is the Orient Express, the legendary train which travelled from Paris to Constantinople. With characters discussing revolution, and conflict on the lips of most passengers, the pre-Great War setting is stunningly evoked. What makes the game special though, aside from the richly detailed train, is the use of time. The player must travel around the four carriages of the Express, engaging in conversation, looking for clues and trying to piece together exactly why main character Robert Cath is a wanted man attempting to fulfil the revolutionary goals of his murdered friend, Tyler Whitney. The mystery takes a back seat to the characterisation rather quickly, as eavesdropping on conversations reveals more and more about each individual on the train.

The Last Express was an artistic triumph

In using the interactivity of being able to move about the train, Mechner realised a form of storytelling which creates a different experience for each player. In real time it is impossible to hear and see everything, and snippets of overheard discussions of politics shape the way the story pans out. While there is a linear thread holding everything together, there are so many incidental details that the game has far more mysteries than those which affect Cath. The ladies who may be in a relationship, though this is never explicitly stated, the young girl with her sick aristocratic grandfather who meets her childhood friend, now a callous revolutionary, aboard the train, these are the characters which remain with the player long after the game has reached one of its many conclusions. In a book or movie there would either be no time to explore such intricacy, or it would be explicitly available, rather than a wonderful discovery on the player’s part. It is entirely possible to miss all these elements and that is why The Last Express stands above most other games in terms of storytelling nuance, subtlety and interactivity. The reward is not in killing, nor reaching the ending, but discovering the wealth of detail Mechner and his team created.

Facade is similar to Last Express in that it plays out in real time, but this time there is only one room and two characters. The player is faceless and essentially voiceless, simply watching Trip and Grace, a couple the player character is friends with, as their evening descends into soul searching and genuinely affecting relationship breakdown. It’s more like a play than a game, but the player can interject with responses to questions and prodding to influence the flow of their conversation. Multiple endings exist, to the point that after more than ten plays later I have yet to see two the same. Trip and Grace have all the human complexity that is so rare in any form of entertainment, let alone games, slowly revealing truths to each other as they weave through their broken dreams and shattered lives. They can be pushed apart or pulled together, though the player’s input never quite influences things in an obvious manner – Telling them to make up causes them to argue more for example. This is a far cry from the simplicity of most conversation based games, such as Mass Effect.

Grace and Trip have remarkable emotional depth

In telling its story in a manner which allows the player to assume a role, yet in many ways not that which they intend, Facade offers perhaps the most human experience ever seen in an interactive medium. Trip and Grace are far too complex to fully understand after playing through the ten minute experience, and attempting to comprehend their motivations and personalities is compelling. They have more to say in a sigh than most videogame characters manage to grunt out over twenty-plus hours, and that is a tremendous achievement. Without the interactivity this would be a mere stage play, a fleeting glimpse into one part of their relationship, one facade. Giving the player an odd form of control over events allows that facade to be lifted and far more to be revealed than would be were this any other form of media.

Both of these games do something which developers desperately try to and fail in the attempt. All the graphical heft in the world can’t create an immersive world if the player doesn’t feel a part of it. Action games make the player the centre of the universe, a universe where enemies wait for them to arrive only to die in seconds. The problem with this approach is that it’s too formulaic. There is no element of unpredictability to most games. Any surprise is so obviously scripted that an ambush is exactly the same as every other enemy encounter. Immersion requires the player to play a role in the game, yet feel they are part of something bigger. They may be a major player, but there must be that element of a larger world, otherwise the game is just a series of linear levels with the occasional thing that goes ‘boo’. Bungie, for all their faults, knew this when creating Halo: Combat Evolved. It’s disappointing they seem to have forgotten along the way, but Halo was brilliant because Master Chief, overpowered as he was, merely acted as a cog in a greater machine.

Heavy Rain was occasionally rather immature

Last Express and Facade both made use of this element, that the player could influence the story yet it would play on without them, perfectly. Adding real time to this only made the premise more convincing. Gamers often discuss what is and is not ‘art’ in a game. For gaming to truly be considered art, the medium must create a method of storytelling truly distinct from others, and in Facade and Last Express it has. Through offering the player the chance to prod the story along, change its course or merely watch it play out, gaming can carve out a creative niche that cannot be filled by any other type of entertainment. The problem with this is, since adults seem to enjoy ‘teenage’ games, Cage stating that you can create games for adults is just a whisper in the ocean of noise that is the games industry, and money will always shout loudest.

It’s not that these games don’t exist, but Last Express bankrupted the developers and Facade saw more praise from the art community than from gamers. Cage may have done something somewhat different, but it ended up being a heavily marketed, dumbed down thriller which failed to truly innovate, falling into the same routines he criticised other games for. It was not the meaningful game he claims, truth be told and I can only imagine he had to compromise heavily to gain the kind of push Sony gave Heavy Rain. Any developer with a true artistic vision will be hampered by the same problems, the need to create a game with broader appeal. Those who want to break that mould only have to look at the failure of The Last Express to see where creativity, intelligence and vision lead. Even Cage’s own Fahrenheit, which was far superior to Heavy Rain, saw far less success. I agree with Cage completely, games need to be more mature, but they also need to draw the player into the world, rather than making them a casual spectator, as Heavy Rain ultimately did.

Stacking Review

3 Mar

Did I just ‘sip tea’ as an attack? I think I did. Wonderful, what next? Ah, obviously I’ll tell these people to get out of my way. Bulletstorm appears to be gaining acclaim for inventive gameplay, but it’s archaic when compared with Tim Schafer’s latest release, Stacking. After the excellent Psychonauts and the underrated Brutal Legend, Double Fine (Schafer’s development company) turned to download-only releases and it’s been a resounding success so far. As the mainstream stagnates and physical releases become ever more bland, Double Fine have carved out a niche for intelligent and unique titles. Costume Quest was the first and Stacking the glorious follow-up.

A combination of adventure and puzzle game, Stacking has a gameplay mechanic that other developers have failed utterly to implement. Remember the altogether disappointing ‘Messiah’ from 2000? You could be forgiven for being unable to, but if you do, you’ll remember it offered the ability to possess other characters and use their abilities. The problems this presented were that firstly, most human characters are essentially the same and second, it takes an imaginative mind to make this in any way useful in terms of gameplay. Schafer is one such creative mind and thankfully Stacking fails to suffer from use of something so complex. Rather, the game makes the whole concept seem remarkably simple, and therein lies the brilliance of Double Fine’s latest creation.

The locations all look fantastic

Using Russian Stacking Dolls as characters allows the player to inhabit the body of larger dolls and use their ability, so you can go from a small child to a tea-sipping lady, to an elderly gent struggling with his hearing. If that sounds utterly ridiculous, that’s because it is. Stacking is a game with its tongue firmly lodged in its cheek and each and every doll has a charm all its own. Gameplay is simple, with left stick moving, right stick controlling the camera and the four main buttons controlling entering and exiting dolls, talking and using a unique ability, each doll has one. These abilities are used to solve the puzzles presented, in a similar manner to the classic adventure games which made Schafer’s name. Each doll is akin to an item, some can open doors, others can distract guards and so on. It’s all extremely easy to play, though the puzzles are satisfyingly tough.

Each obstacle presented by the game can be overcome in several ways, using different dolls and their abilities, which avoids the major pitfall of the adventure game – a lack of creative freedom. Stacking asks players to be intelligent, rather than just lucky, and there are no absurd item combinations or illogical answers. Each problem has a common sense solution or two and gameplay is a simple matter of finding the right doll for the job, then having the imagination to use it. An early example is distracting a guard with a ‘sexy’ doll who can seduce him from his post. Later puzzles involve quite silly abilities and often elicit a laugh, such is their absurdity. Stacking amuses and delights in equal measure, and a large amount of effort has clearly gone into creating an experience that feels a world away from the average game.

Each doll is unique and has bags of personality

Further setting Stacking apart is the setting. Opening with a silent movie style introduction, with a family of dolls gyrating, followed by cards showing what they have said. An evil Baron has kidnapped children, and the youngest child must rescue them. Nothing too complex, but the presentation is exquisite. Cut-scenes move between location theatre style, sets fall away and are replaced, rather than characters moving. The locales reflect the Russian doll styling and look like ‘The Last Express’ re-imagined by Pixar. This aesthetic style is a visual treat, with the dolls looking like painted wood, reflective and smooth, and backgrounds having a period style reminiscent of a drama set in 19th century Europe. Even the occasional tutorial is expertly presented, with a film-reel appearing on the edge of the screen as the game quickly introduces its controls and puzzles. The music also, is perfectly fitting, and creates an atmosphere of joviality without sacrificing the slow melancholic sound of the style it draws upon.

This sumptuous design is a rare treat in gaming. While many games have incredible graphics, few have this level of art design and ultimately that is far more impressive. Even the simplest of elements, the way the dolls move, is brilliantly realised. They all move by gently rocking from left to right, but some are more or less pronounced depending on personality. The aforementioned ‘sexy’ doll rocks the top part of her body as if rocking her hips, while other dolls move in a manner which reveals the smaller doll beneath. Attention to detail like this makes Stacking constantly interesting and appealing, as each new doll is more than just a new ability in a pretty shell, but a character all its own. You will likely spend a few moments just walking around looking at the dolls in each new location, wondering which to control first.

I'm a bit lost for words on this one.

Stacking is a genuinely new experience, feeling like little else, and looking more like a CGI cartoon than a game. It’s full of the kind of humour and personality Schafer’s games have become known for while addressing the problems adventure games often fall victim to. This is the evolution of the point and click into something far more intuitive. It’s clever in so many little ways that it shames the average mainstream release. In times past this would have been one of the biggest releases of the year, rather than an afterthought to the likes of ‘Worst Game Title Ever Award Winner’ Killzone 3 or Bulletstorm. It’s a pity many will miss out on this due to its non-physical release and the relative obscurity that brings, as not only is it the best game of the year so far, but will be a definite contender for game of the year when December comes. On the other hand, sometimes finding and appreciating a game like Stacking makes it that much more special.

Catherine Demo Impressions

2 Mar

The Gaming Liberty today broke the news that ‘Catherine’ – the latest game from the creators of the Persona series, is getting a Western release. This is great news, considering the Persona series, particularly the two latest entries, are some of the finest examples of the JRPG genre to date. Catherine is a departure from that format, and is not part of the Shin Megami Tensei series. Instead this is a puzzle game in which players control lead character Vincent as he attempts to survive his bizarre dreams.

Gameplay is extremely difficult, for a demo played at the easy level it is quite a challenge to get through. Guiding Vincent through his dreams is basically a dash up a stairway of blocks. These blocks can be moved and are often more of an obstacle than a step. The closest comparison I could think of was Kurushi on PS1, but that’s still not even close to what Catherine’s gameplay is like. On the second level of the demo a giant fork-wielding hand followed Vincent, and if he was too slow to exit his dream he would be impaled quite viciously. Despite the ferocious difficulty, it’s a lot of fun. Sitting somewhere between a classic game which is so challenging its compulsive, and a newer title which offers story to keep the player interested is a bit odd, but it most assuredly works here. Getting to the top of the level is similar to playing an old-school platformer in that it becomes the total focus of attention.

This giant hand makes gameplay frantic

What really impresses about the demo however, are the cut-scenes. We’re treated to short anime style scenes which are followed by game-engine cut scenes in a similar style. It’s all fairly seamless and the presentation is excellent. Without the ability to understand or read Japanese it was tough to get exactly what was happening, but it certainly looks intriguing. Vincent has a girlfriend, but is being tempted astray by a younger, blonder girl. In another scene he seems to be discussing his relationship troubles with his friends in a bar. A TV in the background shows a news report about young men dying and we can only assume the mysterious ‘Catherine’ has something to do with it. She seems otherworldly, dressed in shimmering white, almost a picture of innocence. The deaths and dreams are similar to the Persona games, but this looks a lot more mature, focusing on both the romantic and sexual elements of Vincent’s relationships.

In the dream world, Vincent is seen in his boxer shorts, clutching a pillow and with ram’s horns on his head. There are others in the dream, all sheep standing upright, who speak to Vincent. This imagery is continued in reality by the ‘Stray Sheep’ bar which Vincent frequents. The shifts between nightmarish sequences and mundane reality are jarring, but the thematic constancy helps keep things focused. This looks extremely interesting, and while the gameplay is basic, it’s also excellent, though it looks as if it’s merely there to hold together what could be a very good plot. From the demo alone the impression was that this is the videogame equivalent of a smartly put together arthouse film, and has a touch of Ryu Murakami’s work to it. If Catherine can deliver on that kind of promise, and avoids potential controversy, it could bring a new level of storytelling to gaming. One to watch this year, certainly.

Killzone 3 Review

28 Feb

The latest in a series better known for its graphical prowess than its gameplay, Killzone 3 is one of Sony’s system shifters. It’s a first person shooter, the bad guys wear gas masks and clothes with red trim and it has an action style somewhere between Call of Duty and Halo. This is the kind of thing that sells in the millions with a little marketing, and Sony have put a lot of resources into making sure everyone knows that KZ3 is playable in 3D and has eye-wateringly good visuals.

The problem with telling the world that Guerrilla Games have made the best graphics since time began is that it makes otherwise forgivable flaws seem exaggerated. While the characters are chunky and detailed, environments look good and boring details like explosions are excruciatingly well animated, there are plenty of little errors that catch the eye. If you’ve played the demo you’ll have seen how pretty all the snow looks in that ice level, but what really stood out was the two dimensional water hitting the sides of rocks and boats. It looked pitifully lacklustre, as if the developers had either forgotten to finish it, or decided no one would care. If I was buying KZ3 for graphics I’d be thoroughly disappointed. Attention to detail is important when visuals are such a selling point and this kind of thing should be eliminated.

Detailed, but hardly interesting

Other than the few minor flaws, which are only magnified by the visual quality of the rest of the game, I will concede that the graphics are very good. That’s not particularly unique anymore, but they are some of the best on any console, which I suppose is an achievement. The problem is that this is the game’s focus. It’s so obvious that the developers want me to be impressed, that at times I have no idea what’s going on around me. Reloading is dangerous not only because the gun is unusable, but also because the animation is unnecessarily long and takes up almost the entire screen. As always with newer shooters, being shot or taking damage leads to the screen being obscured by a blood effect, but when the game is so graphically detailed, it’s hard to see enemies who wear camouflage as it is. Even the great particle effects just get in the way, with explosions making dust clouds that make seeing enemies impossible.

All the graphical power is wasted really, as it was in KZ2, which had incredibly bland environments. This game tries to do a little better, but inevitably the plot means that most locales are varying shades of grey. The art design is generic, with enemies having no personality and the same being true of the player characters. It’s as if they were pitched as a cross between the awful, jingoistic heroes of Modern Warfare, and the muscle-bound brutes of Gears of War, but with nothing to make them exciting or unique. At least Marcus Fenix et al had some personality, even if it was all a bit over-the-top. KZ3 just doesn’t know what it wants to be. It lacks the pseudo-seriousness of Infinity Ward’s efforts, but seems to want to emulate it, but in space, with big guns and the Empire from Star Wars.

Snow is Guerrilla's one attempt to liven up the environments

The plot is equally bland, a hollow re-imagination of Halo, but with more ‘grit’ and ‘realism’ and human enemies. The characters are not only boring, but mind-numbingly irritating. They chatter as in Modern Warfare, but it’s mostly grunts rather than words. The voice actors sound as if they’re straining to maintain the gruffness in the voices of ‘Sev’ and ‘Rico’ and enemies just shout the same things over and over. Cut-scenes are over-elaborate messes, that never seem to focus on telling a story, rather on the pretty incidental detail that the developers think will impress. The whole thing plays out as little more than Modern Warfare rebranded and set in space, same glorification of war, same irritatingly unoriginal characterisation and same failed effort to turn meat headed morons into compelling characters. Even Master Chief had more personality.

I could forgive much of Killzone 3’s faults if the gameplay was good enough, but it just isn’t. Killzone 2 had exactly the same flaws and its sequel does nothing to address them. The cover system, for example, is awkward, requiring a shoulder button to be held down in order to stay hidden. Unfortunately this is one of the most poorly implemented elements of the game. Instead of, as in other cover-based games, snapping quickly to cover, Killzone is somewhat erratic in when the cover system works. I suppose this is to make things seem more ‘realistic’ but I’m in space shooting Stormtroopers cosplaying as Nazis and frankly, I want to be able to just press the button and hide. The game is hard in the sense that trying to make it fun by shooting as dumbly as one presumes the characters you play as would means certain death. Playing it tactically though, is impossibly dull, and since the cover mechanic is flawed the ‘cover, shoot, move, repeat’ gameplay can’t stand up to continued play. The single player campaign is mercifully short at least, but if you were to like the game enough to continue playing, this would be a negative, so no one wins.

Is that a robot wearing kneepads?

There are further gameplay issues. Iron sights is present and correct (Sir!) and even more frustrating and counter intuitive than ever. While CoD managed to both make iron sights work (though I can’t say I’m a fan) and make it suit the context, Killzone makes it one of the most exasperating aspects of the game in one simple control choice. You have to click the right stick once to enter iron sights and click again to exit. There’s no quick snapping to a target, and it just feels awkward. On top of that, I’m part of a civilisation that’s invading another planet, surely they’ve made some guns that shoot lasers like it’s a light show of infinite destruction by now? The guns are stupidly underpowered for that matter, and useless unless iron sights is used. It all adds up to a frustrating and boring experience that sacrifices fun for strained realism and graphical grunt.

Killzone 3 will no doubt sell in the millions, which is a depressing thought. With a story and characters that fail to do anything other than irritate, a focus on realistic war in a setting which has no place for it and some astonishingly poor design choices, this is a game so mired in mediocrity that it should appeal to no one. I honestly can’t understand why anyone would want to play a game where the characters could only be relatable to someone with the imagination of an earthworm. It somehow glorifies war, yet makes it seem boring. There’s just no imagination here whatsoever. This does nothing the previous game in the series doesn’t do, and steals all its ideas from other sources, on top of implementing them poorly. With no reason to find out what happens next in the world’s least interesting storyline, grinding through the turgid gameplay is only for the most masochistic of souls. Even that one remaining selling point, the graphics, either falls flat due to mistakes, or because the visuals get in the way of the gameplay.

Bland, uninspired, mindless and utterly derivative, Killzone 3 is the poster child for everything that is currently wrong with the games industry. If you want a big dumb shooter, go get Gears of War or BulletStorm. If you want to feel like an imperialist soldier intent on destroying the country/planet of another race, buy Modern Warfare 2 and hum ‘Star Spangled Banner’. If you want great graphics and good cover mechanics, try Uncharted 2. There is nothing about Killzone 3 which hasn’t been done better elsewhere.

Top 100 Games – 93 – Pitfall

28 Feb

Pitfall
Year: 1982
Genre: Platform

The year is 1982, Argentina have invaded the Falklands, 700,000 people in New York protest proliferation of nuclear weapons (in person, not via twitter) and ‘Come on Eileen’ is the biggest hit of the year. This was sadly, not protested. 1982 was also the year that birthed the platform game. Before the global dominance, World of Warcraft and, unfortunately, Tony Hawk’s Ride, Activision were innovating with the seminal ‘Pitfall’. This was one of, if not the best, games on the Atari 2600 and paved the way for the brilliance of Super Mario, Sonic and almost every other 2D platform game that followed. Pitfall is an incredibly important piece of videogame history, signalling a shift from the score-attack gameplay (though a score system was still included) to motivation based on increasing challenge and variation in obstacles and enemies.

For the 2600, the graphics are incredibly impressive

To suggest that Pitfall is just a footnote in industry history would be to discredit it as a great game on its own merits. Creator David Crane hit upon the idea for a ‘running man’ in 1979 and by ’82 had successfully built a game which utilised that potential. The 2600 featured many, many single screen games, but Pitfall offered players a constantly changing environment in which hero Harry traversed a multitude of dangerous ‘pitfalls’. Snakes, crocodiles, scorpions, logs and quicksand all stood in the way of the player finding the treasures that lay hidden in the jungle. Graphics on the 2600 were far from spectacular, but Crane made the most of the technology at his disposal, creating not only one of the most impressive titles visually, but also one free of the stuttering, flashing sprites and bland backgrounds of other games.

What really separated Pitfall from its peers however, was the fact that it was an adventure. In the same way as Legend of Zelda and Elite rewrote the rulebook for what a game could be in terms of scope, Pitfall was a class above its contemporaries. The mere fact that the jungle Harry explored was varied is impressive for the 2600, but that first moment he jumps onto a vine and a swing across a murky swamp is enthralling. Suddenly the world fades away and is replaced by a mysterious jungle, filled with unknown danger and intrigue. The basic sound was enough to maintain the illusion and so one of the first genuine gaming adventures was created. Here was a game that finally offered a real escape into another world, as long as you had the imagination. With wonderful gameplay to back it up its legend was complete. Pitfall is a gaming pioneer, and while it is, like all 2600 games, dated, it still offers a fun and exciting gameplay experience.